FOR FURTHER READING
A History of Nursing--Dock and Nutting, Volume I.
The Life of Florence Nightingale--Cook.
The Life of Pasteur--Vallery-Radot.
The House on Henry Street--Wald.
Public Health Nursing--Gardner, Part I, Chapters I-III.
Origin and Growth of the Healing Art--Berdoe.
Medical History from the Earliest Times--Withington.
Under the Red Cross Flag--Boardman.
CAUSES AND PREVENTION OF SICKNESS
Diseases of two kinds have long been recognized: first, those transmitted directly or indirectly from person to person, like smallpox, measles, and typhoid fever; and second,
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Title: American Red Cross Text-Book on Home Hygiene and Care of the Sick
Author: Jane A. Delano
Anne Hervey Strong
American Red Cross
Release Date: May 4, 2010 [EBook #32250]
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AMERICAN RED CROSS TEXT-BOOK
HOME CARE OF THE SICK
AMERICAN RED CROSS
CARE OF THE SICK
JANE A. DELANO, R. N.
Chairman of the National Committee, Red Cross Nursing Service; Director,
Department of Nursing, American Red Cross; Late Superintendent
of the Nurse Corps, U. S. A.; of the Training Schools
for Nurses, Bellevue Hospital, New York City; and of the
Training School for Nurses, Hospital of the University
of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia
REVISED AND REWRITTEN
ANNE HERVEY STRONG, R. N.
Professor of Public Health Nursing, Simmons College, Boston
This is the Second Edition of the American Red Cross
Text-book in Elementary Hygiene and Home Care of
the Sick by Jane A. Delano and Isabel McIsaac.
PREPARED FOR AND ENDORSED BY
THE AMERICAN RED CROSS
P. BLAKISTON'S SON & CO.
1012 WALNUT STREET
Copyright, 1918, by American Red Cross
THE MAPLE PRESS YORK PA
To the woman who wishes to protect her family from preventable diseases and is anxious to fit herself in the absence of a trained nurse to give intelligent care to those who are sick, this revision of the Red Cross text-book on Elementary Hygiene and Home Care of the Sick is particularly directed. It should appeal to men and to women who are interested in maintaining the health of their neighborhoods and communities and in affording effective coöperation to the public health authorities. To teachers wishing to impart protective health information to high school pupils, the book also should be useful as a class text as well as a guide.
The war, which has caused the withdrawal from private practice of thousands of physicians and graduate nurses, makes it peculiarly important to the nation for every adult to have sound knowledge as to how to prevent contagion and epidemics, especially by precautionary attention to home and local sanitation. With nurses becoming more difficult to secure, the safety of the family demands that some member in each household know enough about elementary nursing to make a patient comfortable and to carry out accurately the instructions of the physician.
The work of revision, based upon the latest knowledge of hygiene, sanitation and methods of home-nursing has been done by Miss Anne Hervey Strong, Professor of Public Health Nursing, Simmons College, under the personal direction of the author and the National Committee on Red Cross Nursing Service. The material has been painstakingly read by Dr. H. W. Rucker and Dr. Taliaferro Clarke of the United States Public Health Service, and Lieutenant Colonel Clarence H. Connor, Medical Corps, United States Army. Indebtedness to Dr. H. M. McCracken, President of Vassar College and Director of the Red Cross Junior Membership, for his valuable suggestion as to adapting the book for high school use as well as for the assistance rendered by his Department, also is gladly acknowledged.
J. A. D.
I wish to express my gratitude to those who have so kindly helped in the work of preparing the present edition. Thanks are especially due to Professor Isabel Stewart, Miss Anna C. Jamme, Professor Curtis M. Hilliard, Professor Maurice Bigelow, Miss Katharine Lord, Miss Josephine Goldmark, and Miss Evelyn Walker.
A. H. S.
|Causes and Prevention of Sickness
Communicable diseases, 1. Micro-organisms and bacteria, 1. Parasites, 3. Structure and development of parasites, 4. Bacteria, 4. Shape, 4. Size, 5. Motion, 5. Multiplication, 5. Spores, 7. Distribution, 8. Protozoa, 8. Visible parasites, 8. Transmission of pathogenic organisms, 9. Defenses of the body, 12. Immunity, 13. Vaccination and inoculation, 15. Carriers, 17. Non-communicable diseases, 20. Physical examinations, 22.
|Health and the Home
Heredity, 27. Hygiene of environment and person, 28. Ventilation, 29. Lighting, 32. Cleanliness of houses, 33. Garbage, 37. Insects, 38. Sewage, 39. Personal cleanliness, 41. Oral hygiene, 44. Treatment of teeth, 46. Clothing, 47. Food, 48. Elimination, 52. Rest and fatigue, 53. Sleep, 55. Recreation, 55.
|Babies and Their Care
Growth and development, 64. Average size, 64. Muscular development, 65. Development of special senses, of speech, of teeth, 66. Normal excretions, 67. Clothing, 68. Sleep, 70. Fresh air, 72. Diet, 72. Intervals of feeding, 73. Water, 75. Weaning, 75. Nursing bottles and nipples, 75. Tables of diet, 78. Bathing, 78. Eyes, 80. Mouth, 81. Nostrils, 81. Genital organs, 81. Development of habits, 82. Exercise, 83. Play and toys, 85.
|Indications of Sickness
Objective symptoms, 92. Temperature, 92. Pulse, 96. Respiration, 99. General appearance, 100. Special senses, 101. Voice, tongue, throat, gums, 102. Cough, 103. Appetite, 103. Excretions, 103. Loss of weight, 104. Sleep, 104. Mental conditions, 104. Subjective symptoms, 105. Pain, 105. Records, 107. Tuberculosis, cancer and mental illness, 107. Tuberculosis, 109. Cancer, 111. Mental illness, 112.
|Equipment and Care of the Sick Room
Choice of a sick room, 118. Furnishing, 120. Ventilation, 123. Heating, 124. Lighting, 124. Cleaning, 126. The attendant, 127.
|Beds and Bedmaking
Bedsteads, 133. Mattresses, 135. Care of the mattress, 136. Pillows, 136. Protection of the mattress and pillows, 137. Rubber sheets and pillow-cases, 138. Sheets, 139. Draw sheets, 139. Pillow covers, 140. Blankets, 140. Comforters and quilts, 141. Counterpanes, 141. Bedmaking, 141. To make an unoccupied bed, 143. To change a patient's pillows, 146. Lifting a patient in bed, 146. To turn a patient in bed, 147. To change sheets while patient is in bed, 147. To move patient from one bed to another, 150.
|Baths and Bathing
Cleansing baths, 154. Bed bath, 156. Care of the mouth and teeth, 160. Care of the hair, 163. To wash the hair of a bed patient, 164. Hot foot-baths, 165. Cool sponge bath, 166.
|Appliances and Methods for the Sick-Room
Devices to give support, 172. Bedpans, 176. Daily routine in the sick-room, 179. Time for visitors, 182.
|Feeding the Sick
The digestive process, 188. Feeding the sick, 191. Liquid diet, 192. Semi-solid diet, 192. Light or convalescent diet, 193. Full diet, 193. Serving food for the sick, 195. To feed a helpless patient, 197.
|Medicines and Other Remedies
Action of drugs, 200. Amateur dosing, 202. Patent remedies, 205. Administration of medicine, 206. Suppositories, 209. Enemata, 210. Sprays and gargles, 213. Inhalation, 213. Inunction, 214. Household medicine cupboard, 215.
|Application of Heat, Cold and Counter-Irritants
Inflammation, 220. Hot applications, 225. Dry heat, 225. Moist heat, 227. Stupes or hot fomentations, 229. Cold applications, 231. Dry cold, 231. Moist cold, 232. Cold compresses for the eyes, 232. Counter-irritants, 233. Mustard paste, 233. Mustard leaves, 234.
|Care of Patients with Communicable Diseases
Incubation period, 238. Care of patients with colds or other slight infections, 238. Care during more serious infections, 242. Children's diseases, 246. Rules for isolation and exclusion from school, 247. Disinfection, 248. Care of nose and throat discharges, 249. Care of discharges from the bowels and bladder, 249. Bath water, 250. Care of the hands, 250. Care of utensils, 251. Care of linen, 251. Disinfection of the person, 252. Termination of quarantine, 252. Terminal disinfection, 253. Fumigation, 254.
|Common Ailments and Emergencies
Conditions in which the nervous system is involved, 257. Headache, 257. Sleeplessness, 258. Fainting, 259. Convulsions, 260. Shock, 261. Stimulants, 263. Sunstroke and heat exhaustion, 264. Conditions in which the digestive tract is affected, 265. Nausea and vomiting, 265. Hiccough, 265. Diarrhœa, 266. Constipation, 266.