Perhaps the most important thing which good conversation is not, is this: It is not talking for effect, or hedging. There are two kinds of hedging in c
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What to Say and How to Say it
Author: Mary Greer Conklin
Release Date: January 18, 2009 [EBook #27830]
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What to Say and How to Say It
MARY GREER CONKLIN
FUNK & WAGNALLS COMPANY
NEW YORK AND LONDON
Copyright, 1912, by
FUNK & WAGNALLS COMPANY
All rights reserved for all countries
[Printed in the United States of America]
Published November, 1912
IN LOVING MEMORY
A. E. C.
WHOSE DELIGHTFUL CONVERSATION STIMULATED MY YOUTH
IN GRATEFUL ACKNOWLEDGMENT
OF THEIR SEVERE CRITICISM AND FRIENDLY AID
CHARLES TOWNSEND COPELAND
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF ENGLISH AT HARVARD COLLEGE
FRANK WILSON CHENEY HERSEY
INSTRUCTOR IN ENGLISH AT HARVARD COLLEGE
"The best book that was ever written upon good breeding," said Dr. Johnson to Boswell, "the best book, I tell you, Il Cortegiano by Castiglione, grew up at the little court of Urbino, and you should read it." Il Cortegiano was first published by the Aldine Press at Venice, in 1528. Before the close of the century more than one hundred editions saw the light; French, Spanish, English, and German versions followed each other in rapid succession, and the Cortegiano was universally acclaimed as the most popular prose work of the Italian Renaissance. "Have you read Castiglione's Cortegiano?" asks the courtier Malpiglio, in Tasso's dialog. "The beauty of the book is such that it deserves to be read in all ages; as long as courts endure, as long as princes reign and knights and ladies meet, as long as valor and courtesy hold a place in our hearts, the name of Castiglione will be held in honor."
In his Book of the Courtier, Castiglione said very little about perfection of speech; he discust only the standard of literary language and the prescribed limits of the "vulgar tongue," or the Italian in which Petrarch and Boccaccio had written. What he says about grace, however, applies also to conversation: "I say that in everything it is so hard to know the true perfection as to be well-nigh impossible; and this because of the variety of opinions. Thus there are many who will like a man who speaks much, and will call him pleasing; some will prefer modesty; some others an active and restless man; still others one who shows calmness and deliberation in everything; and so every man praises or decries according to his mind, always clothing vice with the name of its kindred virtue, or virtue with the name of its kindred vice; for example, calling an impudent man frank, a modest man dull, an ignorant man good, a knave discreet, and so in all things else. Yet I believe that there exists in everything its own perfection, altho concealed; and that this can be determined through rational discussion by any having knowledge of the thing in hand."
If this superb courtier could not reach decisions regarding perfection in matters of culture and polish, I could scarcely hope to have entirely reconciled the contending phases of conversation, even if I have succeeded in im pressing positively the evident faults to be avoided, and the avowed graces of speech to be attained. With Castiglione as a model I can only say regarding conversation what he said about the perfect courtier: "I praise the kind of courtier that I most esteem, and approve him who seems to me nearest right, according to my poor judgment.... I only know that it is worse not to wish to do well than not to know how."
Those heretofore interested in agreeable speech will at once recognize my obligation to the few men and women who have written entertainingly on conversation, and from whom I have often quoted. My excuse for offering a new treatment is that I may perhaps have succeeded in bringing the subject more within the reach of the general public, and to have written more exhaustively. The deductions I have made are the result of an affectionate interest in my subject and of notes taken during a period of many years. If the book affords readers one-half the pleasure and stimulus it has brought to me, my labors will be happily rewarded.
Beyond my chief critics, to whom I dedicate this volume, I express my gratitude to Mrs. Fannie Bloomfield Zeisler, the pianiste, and to Dr. Henrietta Becker von Klenze, formerly of the University of Chicago, whose interest in all I have ever attempted to do has been an unfailing support, and whose suggestions have added value to this work; to Dr. Gustavus Howard Maynadier, of Harvard College, for friendly assistance in many ways; and to Mr. George Benson Weston, of Harvard College, who has been kind enough to read the manuscript, and by whose knowledge of the literature of many languages I have greatly profited.
WHAT CONVERSATION IS AND WHAT IT IS NOT
|What is the aim of conversation?—The talk of Coleridge and Macaulay—Browning's delightful conversation—Why we go into society—The elements of good conversation—What it is not—Genius and scholarship not essential to good conversation||21|
DISCUSSION VERSUS CONTROVERSY
|Dr. Johnson's and Robert Louis Stevenson's opinion of discussion—Polite ness and discussion—The hostess in discussion—Flat contradiction in discussion—Polemical squabbles—Brilliant discussion in France—The secret of delightful conversation in France—Leading the talk—Topics for discussion—Gladstone's conversation||35|
|Gossip in literature—Gossip comes from being of one kindred under God—Gossip and the misanthrope—Personal history of people we know and people we don't know—Gossip of books of biography—Interest in others gives fellowship and warmth to life—Essential difference between slander and innocent gossip—The psychology of the slanderer—The apocryphal slanderer—"Talking behind another's back"—Personal chat the current coin of conversation||63|
WHAT SHOULD GUESTS TALK ABOUT AT DINNER?
|Guests' talk during the quarter of an hour before dinner—What guests may talk about—Talking to one's dinner-companion—Guests' duty to host and hostess—The dominant note in table-talk—General and tête-à-tête conversation between guests—The raconteur at dinner||89|
TALK OF HOST AND HOSTESS AT DINNER
|The amalgam for combining guests—Hosts' talk during the quarter of an hour before dinner—Seating guests to enhance conversation—Number of guests for the best conversation—Directing the conversation at dinner—Drawing guests out—Signaling for conversation—General and tête-à-tête conversation—Putting strangers at ease—Steering talk away from offensive topics—The gracious host and hostess—An ideal dinner party||111|
INTERRUPTION IN CONVERSATION
|Its deadening effect on conversation—Habitual interruption—Nervous interruption—Glib talkers—Interrupting by over-accuracy—Interruptions outside the conversation-circle—Children and their interruption—Good talk at table—Anecdotes of children's appreciation of good conversation—The hostess who is "Mistress of herself tho China fall"||133|
POWER OF FITNESS, TACT, AND NICETY IN BUSINESS WORDS.
|Why cultivating the social instinct adds strength to business persuasion—Secret of the ability to use tactful and vivid words in business—Essential training necessary to the nice use of words—Business success depends upon nicety and tact more than on any quality of force||161|
|Conversation is reciprocal—Good conversationalists cannot talk to the best advantage without confederates—As in whist it is the combination which effects what a single whist-playing genius cannot accomplish—Good conversation does not mark a distinction among subjects; It denotes a difference in talkability—The different degrees of talkability—Imperturbable glibness impedes good conversation—Ease with which one may improve one's conversational powers||175|
WHAT CONVERSATION IS AND WHAT IT IS NOT
What Is the Aim of Conversation?—The Talk of Coleridge and Macaulay—Browning's Delightful Conversation—Why We Go into Society—The Elements of Good Conversation—What It Is Not—Genius and Scholarship Not Essential to Good Conversation.
WHAT CONVERSATION IS AND WHAT IT IS NOT
Good conversation is more easily defined by what it is not than by what it is. To come to any conclusions on this subject, one should first determine: What is the aim of conversation? Should the intention be to make intercourse with our fellows a free school in which to acquire information; should it be to disseminate knowledge; or should the object be to divert and to amuse? It might seem that any person with a good subject must talk well and be interesting. Alas! highly cultivated people are sometimes the most silent. Or, if they talk well, they are likely to talk too well to be good conversationalists, as did Coleridge and Macaulay, who talked long and hard about interesting subjects, but were nevertheless recorded as bores in conversation because they talked at people instead of talking with them. In society Browning was delightful in his talk. He would not discuss poetry, and was as communicative on the subject of a sandwich or the adventures of some woman's train at the last drawing-room as on more weighty subjects. Tho to some he may have seemed obscure in his art, all agreed that he was simple and natural in his discourse. Whatever he talked about, there could not be a moment's doubt as to his meaning.
From these facts concerning three men of genius, it can be inferred that we do not go into society to get instruction gratis; that good conversation is not necessarily a vehicle of information; that to be natural, easy, gay, is the catechism of good talk. No matter how learned a man is, he is often thrown with ordinary mortals; and the ordinary mortals have as much right to talk as the extraordinary ones. One can conceive, on the other hand, that when geniuses have leisure to mix in society their desire is to escape from the questions which daily burden their minds. If they prefer to confine themselves to an interchange of ideas apart from their special work, they have a right to do so. In this shrinking of people of genius from discussing the very subjects with regard to which their opinion is most valuable, there is no doubt a great loss to the world. But unless they themselves bring forth the topic of their art, it must remain in abeyance. Society has no right to force their mentioning it. This leads us, then, to the conclu sion that the aim of conversation is to distract, to interest, to amuse; not to teach nor to be taught, unless incidentally. In good conversation people give their charm, their gaiety, their humor, certainly—and their wisdom, if they will. But conversation which essentially entertains is not essentially nonsense. Some one has drawn this subtle distinction: "I enter a room full of pleasant people as I go to see a picture, or listen to a song, or as I dance—that I may amuse myself, and invigorate myself, and raise my natural spirits, and laugh dull care away. True, there must be ideas, as in all amusements worthy of the name there is a certain seriousness impossible to define; only they must be kept in the background."
The aim and design of conversation is, therefore,